While pigs are generally very healthy creatures, they can still get sick. You should consult with your veterinarian for a vaccination program that will prevent most common pig diseases from developing. Below are some pig diseases that your swine should be routinely inoculated against.
Atrophic rhinitis is a common disease characterized by inflammation of the pig’s nasal tissues. When infected, the turbinate bones in the nose are damaged and may shrink or atrophy. In the mild form of the disease, the inflammation does not progress and the turbinate bones eventually return to normal. When the disease becomes serious, however, inflammation is progressive and the nose becomes distorted, causing respiratory disease to develop. Female pigs should be vaccinated before farrowing so they will pass on immunity to their piglets through their milk. Pigs should also be vaccinated twice before they are weaned.
E. Coli is a bacteria that causes diarrhea in piglets and is usually caused by fecal contamination of the living environment. Pregnant females should be vaccinated before farrowing.
Erysipelas is one of the most prevalent pig diseases, since it is caused by bacteria that are commonly found in most pig farms that pigs excrete through their saliva or waste products. This disease can cause death or compromise the health of the pig by causing heart infections or chronic arthritis. It can also stunt the growth of surviving pigs. Pregnant females should be inoculated before breeding. You should also vaccinate newly-bought feeder pigs if you are unsure if they have been inoculated.
Leptospirosis is a bacteria-borne disease that can easily spread throughout the herd if steps are not taken to prevent it. Infected vulnerable female pigs can spontaneously abort their litters. You can protect females from these pig diseases by vaccinating gilts before they are first bred and sows at every subsequent weaning.
Porcine Parvovirus is a virus that can multiply within the pig’s intestine without showing outward symptoms. It is a leading cause of reproductive failure through spontaneous abortion of the fetus. The parvovirus is difficult to eliminate from the pig’s environment because it resists most disinfectants and can survive outside the pig for long periods of time. Pregnant sows should be protected by vaccination before breeding.
Other common pig diseases that you should watch out for but not necessarily routinely vaccinate against, because it may not be cost-effective to do so, are Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes pneumonia that cause sudden death or retard growth; Salmonella, which can give pigs severe pneumonia or diarrhea; and Streptococcus suis, which causes nervous system disease that can result in chronic arthritis, stunting and heart infection.