The human body has literally trillions of cells that come in a wide range of sizes and shapes. They help to make up the basic structure of living organisms. The different types of cells are perfectly suited to their individual roles. For instance, the cells of the skeletal system are entirely different to the function and structure of cells found in the digestive system. The various cells are needed to maintain the function of the body and keep it running as a single unit.
Here are a few of the most common cells in the body:
The blood cells are an essential part of life and help to fight infections and transports oxygen all over the body. Blood cells are split into three major categories: platelets, white blood cells and red blood cells. Platelets are essential to help the blood clot and stop high blood loss due to damaged or broken blood vessels. The white blood cells help to provide immunity and destroy pathogens, while the red blood cells transport oxygen and determine blood type.
Skin is made up of several layers that include epidermis (epithelial tissue), dermis (connective tissue), and a subcutaneous layer. The top layer of skin consists of squamous epithelial cells that are packed tightly together. Skin has a variety of functions, including the ability to store fat, protect against germs, prevent dehydration, produce hormones and vitamins, and protect the body from damage.
The neurons or nerve cells are a fundamental part of the nervous system. Nerves are necessary to send impulses or signals to various parts of the body, including the spinal cord and brain. These cells are made up of two significant parts: nerve processes and cell body. The processes have the ability to transmit and conduct signals, while the cell body is needed to house the neuron’s organelle, cytoplasm and nucleus.
The endothelial cells are used in the lymphatic system structure and line the cardiovascular system. They create a thin internal layer for every blood vessel in the body. This layer can appear in the heart, skin, lung, brain and lymphatic vessels. Also, these cells are needed to help create new blood vessels. Other functions include regulating blood pressure and controlling the movement of fluid, gases and macromolecules between tissues and blood.
The stem cells have a variety of roles in the body, including the ability to develop into tissues or specialized cells for a certain organ. They replicate and divide as needed to help repair and replenish tissue.